Discussion References The abstract is a summary of the article. You should refer to every table or figure in the text. For each theme or area, you should discuss how the results help to answer your research question, and whether the results are consistent with your expectations and the literature. Describe the patterns, principles, and relationships shown by each major findings and place them in proper perspective. The discussion should show how your findings fit with existing knowledge, what new insights they contribute, and what consequences they have for theory or practice. Analyzing vs. Remember that the data are the data: nothing more, nothing less. Remember that the data are the data: nothing more, nothing less. Researchers often make suggestions about how future research could build on their findings and how relevant groups for example doctors creative writing jobs cardiff put their evidence to use.

Discussion Section

Number tables and figures in separate lists, but consecutively by the order in which you mention them in the text. Relate the Findings to Similar Studies No study in the social sciences is so novel or possesses such a restricted focus that it has absolutely no relation to previously published research.

You may find techniques like mind mapping are helpful in making a first outline; check out our page: Creative Thinking for some ideas about how to think through your ideas.

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Give a brief explanation about why you believe the findings and conclusions of your study are important and how they support broader knowledge or understanding of the research problem. If you feel compelled to speculate, do so in the form of describing possible implications or explaining possible impacts.

Organizing Academic Research Papers: 8. The Discussion

Often, a combination of both the past and the present tense is used in sentences within the discussion section. Abstracts can be "unstructured" written in one long paragraph or "structured" broken down into individual section headings. Be wary of mistaking the reiteration of a specific finding for an interpretation. The lid was then raised slightly. You also need to consider how best to present your results: tables, figures, graphs, or text.

You should write a direct, declarative, and succinct proclamation of the study results. All the results should be explained in the text of the results section as well as being presented in either figures or tables. This can be followed by any recommendations for further research.

Table of contents

Do not introduce new results in the discussion section. Example: The methods reported here will open up avenues for further research in the field. Azar, Beth. If a study that you cited does not support your findings, don't ignore it--clearly explain why your research findings differ from theirs. The discussion section should remain focused on the findings of your study.

Importance of a Good Discussion

You do not need to be apologetic about these, because you made a choice about them, which you should have justified in the methodology section. Relate the Findings to Similar Studies No study is so novel or possesses such a restricted focus that it has absolutely no relation to other previously published research.

Every result included MUST have a method set out in the methods section. Deduction: a claim for how the results can primordial soup hypothesis on the origin of life on earth applied more generally. A good discussion will explain why your results and the whole paper is important.

If there is prior research to indicate this, you need to explain why it was significant or unanticipated. You may also need to use the future tense in the discussion section if you are making recommendations for further research or providing future direction.

Related questions

Bates College; Hess, Dean R. Regardless of where it's mentioned, a good discussion section includes analysis of any unexpected findings. Be concise and make your points clearly.

Formulating conclusions in research

This can include re-visiting key sources already cited in your literature review section, or, save them to cite later in the discussion section if they are more important to compare with your results than being part of the general research you cited to provide context where are thesis statements located background information.

Statistical tests should include details of p values or confidence intervals and limits.

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Someone else should be able to go to the exact location of your study site if they want to repeat or check your work, or just visit your study area. If a limitation is applicable to the method chosen to gather information, then describe in detail the problems you encountered and why. Examples The generalizability of the results is limited by… The reliability of this data is impacted by… Due to the lack of available data, the results cannot discussion of results in research paper The methodological choices were constrained by… It is beyond the scope of this study to… State your recommendations Based on the discussion of your results, you can make recommendations for practical implementation or further research.

Describe the procedures for your study in sufficient detail that other scientists could repeat your work to verify your findings.


Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon, Department of Biology. Always make sure to describe any modifications you have made of a standard or published method. Of course you did, because that is what all good scientists do, and it is a given that you recorded your measurements and observations.

  1. If appropriate, refer the reader to a figure or table to help enhance the interpretation of the data [either within the text or as an appendix].
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Make Suggestions for Further Research You may choose to conclude the discussion section by making suggestions for further research [this can be done in the overall conclusion of your paper]. However, for an undergraduate or master's thesis, you will probably find that you need to include most of your work.

Be certain that you clearly identify your comments as speculation or as a suggestion for where further research is needed.

Qualitative case study dissertation proposal

The description must include both physical and biological characteristics of the site pertinant to the study aims. If you have performed experiments at a particular location or lab because it is the only place to do it, or one of a few, then you should note that in your methods and identify the lab or facility.

Summarize your key findings

Here you will indicate what types of descriptive statistics were used and which analyses usually hypothesis tests were employed to answer each of the questions or hypotheses tested and determine statistical siginifcance. Discussion of results in research paper your Dissertation: See also: Writing Your Methodology When writing a dissertation or thesis, the results and discussion sections can be both the most interesting as well as the most challenging sections to write.

This can focus your mind on what the results actually show and help you to sort them in your head. In genetics studies include the strains or genetic stocks used. For example, describing lessons learned, proposing recommendations that can help improve a covering letter for resume sample, or highlighting best practices. Describe how the data were summarized and analyzed.

Results Section

A full understanding of the dissertation research methods structure of your research is part of a good discussion section. If the method was a small set of qualitative interviews, the findings the authors would report what the interviewees said, using quotations from transcripts to illustrate important findings.

Your overall aim is to show the reader exactly what your research has contributed and why they should care. Analyzing vs. Do not introduce new results in the discussion.

The text and figures should be complementary, not repeat the same information. For example, if you have seen a headline about a new treatment that might be relevant to you, but you are curious about how similar the people in the study are to you, you can find the paper and read about the sampling strategy in the methods section.

discussion of results in research paper chapters 1-3 of thesis

The A of the no-light control was measured only at Time 0 and at the end of the experiment. Once completed, you can begin to relax slightly: you are on to the last stages of writing!